kurt's nightmare

Generally, I post once a week. Topics are randomly selected and depend mostly upon whether it's baseball season or not. Other topics will include sex, politics, old girlfriends, music, and whatever else pops into my little brain. If you'd like to read, or ignore, my blog about China: http://meidabizi.blogspot.com/

Name:
Location: Dayton, OH, Heard & McDonald Islands

I'm an Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Dayton. I represent no one but myself, and barely do that. I'm here mostly by accident.

Sunday, February 01, 2009

αἰσχρὸν

The new Prez recently introduced, or reminded us of, a word that seems not to be much in current parlance: shame. The Greeks were all over this (see, among other places, Plato's Republic); the word we translate as "shame" is "αἰσχρὸν [aischron]." As usual, with a technical term in the Greek moral/philosophical vocabulary, it can't be readily translated by a single word.

Since this is a blog, not an article, I shall not even pretend to have done much worrying about what the facts are here, since—in both cases—I tend to just make shit up anyway.

Obama referred to the recent granting of bonuses (boni? bona?) on the part of Merrill-Lynch et al. (to the tune of $18b) as "shameful." I wonder if this will catch on? Some of us parents still use the cliché (and often rhetorical) "Aren't you ashamed of yourself?"

The basic idea seems to be that if S does some act x that is shameful, S should a) recognize it as shameful b) feel substantial regret without being forced to do so by others and c) make some sort of amends (financial, moral, political, religious, whatever).

So here S is some guy (yeah, we'll make it a guy) who receives, say, a $5 million year end bonus. (The apologists will say "but this bonus is like tips for a server: regarded as part of one's expected income!" The response is "wow! Cool job!") At the same time, S's bank was provided with some substantial funds to avoid bankruptcy and to increase liquidity, generating more economic activity and, ideally, helping people avoid foreclosure in their houses.

Now if someone is giving me a bunch of money, because I've been pissin' it away at the track, and then I take her money and go put it on a horse, that person may well be annoyed. Indeed, that person might well think either I'm a jerk, stupid, not paying attention, or irresponsible to the point of, well, shame.

But note that "shame" is an attitude that, theoretically, one must adopt oneself, not have it forced upon one by another. We may point it out, sort of as a moral hint, but if the person doesn't recognize the behavior as shameful . . . well, you can lead a horse to water but you can't make him a moral agent or something. And one needs to recognize the problem before making amends for it.

There are a number of people in the last 30 years or so who have behaved abominably, from Nixon to Osama bin Laden to Kenneth Lay. (Add your own names, or just find a fourth for this bridge club.) It seems rare to see any of these feel ashamed. Jimmy Swaggart seemed pretty ashamed, but like so many others, he seemed mostly to regret having been caught. What is missing is the self's procedure of moral evaluation, and the recognition of moral failure sufficient enough for a person to recognize that he has acted, yes, shamefully.

I'm all for reintroducing this notion back into our ordinary moral/political vocabulary, by which I do not advocate a bunch of people standing outside some theatre showing a controversial movie shouting "For shame! For shame!" First of all, that sounds too much like Grandpa Simpson; second of all, at least in my case, I invariably go see movies that people tell me I shouldn't see, especially if they are picketing (and even more if, as is frequently the case, they haven't seen the movie).

Short of forcing everyone to read the Republic, do I hear a) any votes for reinvigorating a sense of shame among those who act shamefully and b) a method for doing so?

62 Comments:

Blogger Mike Bock said...

I think of the Genesis story of how Adam and Eve, after eating of the forbidden fruit, hid from God, and then explained to God that they had hidden because they were afraid -- afraid because they were naked. And God asked, “Who told you that you were naked?” (Genesis 3:11)

Shame, it seems to me, is a quality of consciousness, a self awareness that’s one’s behavior deserves the disfavor, disapproval, disdain of the authority of one’s culture. One can avoid the painful self awareness characterized by shame by hiding -- hiding one’s wrong behaviors from others, and, by compartmentalizing one’s own consciousness, hiding one’s wrong behaviors from one’s self.

A sense of shame, I’m thinking, has been used throughout history to help control individuals in a society. Puritans felt shame for actions that contradicted the norms of their society, and now those norms, to us, may seem quaintly out of fashion. Shame, it seems, is always connected to a sense of honor. The original Indian societies had well established codes of what constitutes honorable actions and what contrary actions constituted shameful actions. The concept of shame is a concept, I’m sure, that interests contemporary anthropologists, scientists, who seek to understand cultures, how cultures control individuals, etc.

Most primitive societies, I would guess, have established an ethos that condemns any one of its members from being a big hog -- greedily thinking only of oneself, looking out for number one, taking more than one’s share, taking advantage of the weaker members of the society. People acting like big hogs in those societies, I imagine, if exposed to the society as a whole, would feel shame.

Big hogs in our capitalistic society, on the other hand, usually enjoy a glorification by our culture.

A president is an accepted spokesperson for the authority of our culture, and, as such, has a huge potential to help define the ethos that defines our culture. There is a huge need to raise the consciousness of our whole society, to reestablish a sense of one’s responsibility to society as a whole. Obama has performed a great service by raising awareness that the unbridled selfishness that undermines our society is contemptible, deserving of being shamed by all reasonable people in the society.

This thoughtful topic is one that deserves a lot of attention.

9:04 AM  
Blogger Bazarov said...

"Big hogs in our capitalistic society, on the other hand, usually enjoy a glorification by our culture."

I agree with this assessment.

I think a certain critical mass of memes must be attained before shame can take root. I don't think that's happened here yet regarding economic/fiscal opinions.

I'm guessing a key to getting some foundation for shame to flourish on would be to see why countries that exhibit shame for the things you find shameful got to be that way. Why do the Danes feel it disrespectful to separate yourself from the rest by displays of wealth or otherwise (e.g. Jante Law)? Why do Icelanders not see what all the hoopla is about when a homosexual female becomes prime-minister? Why do Brits make themselves much more vocal when huge payouts are given to CEOs? And why did the French in the not so distant past cut off the heads of those that climbed so high on the backs of the masses? Maybe then we'd know why none of those hold for the USA.
As betrayed by the previous topic, shame isn't felt in this grand country when holding a view no enlightened person holds this day and age. Given that economic theory isn't as clearly developed as the evolution of life on this planet, I think that only makes the problem of shaming people here all the more difficult.
Any change, I'm afraid, would take generations to occur, unless this recession doesn't turn around and people are forced into some truly poor circumstances. Barring that or a bloody revolution/civil war, I don't see things changing much here. The status quo's a stubborn one: good luck in getting it to change its ways.
That's not to say populations at large can't be manipulated. I just think those most capable of doing so haven't any motive to do so; if anything, I'm guessing they have quite the vested interest in keeping things just the way they are.

10:04 AM  
Blogger Bazarov said...

Oh, and I obviously need to reread the Republic. I can't remember much discussion on shame, though I read many things I thought shameful therein. (Seasonal mating and paternal ignorance? Really?)

10:10 AM  
Blogger Kirsten said...

You're right, Kurt! I am a fan of this post! Quelle honte! ¡Que verguenza! Oui! Let's bring the notion of shame back into the sphere of business. Former CEO Thain's shame looks something like this:

Below, The Daily Beast presents Thain’s top 16 outrages.
1) $2,700 for six wall sconces.
2) $5,000 for a mirror in his private dining room.
3) $11,000 for fabric for a "Roman Shade.”
4) $13,000 for a chandelier in the private dining room.
5) $15,000 for a sofa.
6) $16,000 for a "custom coffee table.”
7) $18,000 for a “George IV Desk.”
8) $25,000 for a "mahogany pedestal table.”
9) $28,000 for four pairs of curtains.
10) $35,000 for something called a "commode on legs.”
11) $37,000 for six chairs in his private dining room.
12) $68,000 for a "19th Century Credenza" in his office.
13) $87,000 for a pair of guest chairs.
14) $87,000 for an area rug in Thain's conference room and another area rug for $44,000.
15) $230,000 to his driver for one year’s work.
16) $800,000 to hire celebrity designer Michael Smith, who is currently redesigning the White House for the Obama family for just $100,000.

1:01 PM  
Blogger Phil said...

Shame, that's a novel concept for our society. Shame is a result of a failure of conscience. That failure results in a person’s inner sense of what is right, or what is wrong, morally. We have little to no morality in our society. To expect or believe people will have consequential shame is not likely.

8:37 PM  
Blogger Bazarov said...

Little to no morality in our society? Do you really think that? I'm not even sure that's possible, because whatever the majority holds to be right and proper is the morality of that society, right?

9:25 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Bazarov said: "whatever the majority holds to be right and proper is the morality of that society, right?"

Hmmm, morailty by popular vote. Did that make slavery in the 19th century (just to pick an obvious example) moral because a majority agreed with it?

3:32 PM  
Blogger Bazarov said...

Again, I'm using defintions I've found at places where definitions are provided. The opposite seems to me to be some sort of absolute morality, which, to me, is what Phil seemed to be alluding to.

At the time of slavery, yes it was moral. By today's standards, no, it is not. It depends on whose morality you're going by. Many churches think it's a moral thing to castigate homosexuals. I don't think that's a moral thing, in fact I think it's immoral. But when speaking of society as a whole, I think we need to take a more average approach. There are many things this society does that I think immoral that most people are perfectly fine with. But my opinion doesn't mandate what this society's morality should consist of, otherwise we'd be living in quite a different way.

Fearing the can of worms I've opened up, let me add that by absolute morality I mean some set of rules or codes that hold for all sentient creatures at all time until eternity. I would differentiate this a bit from a universal morality, which I think could be argued for, given the data anthropologists have gathered (when they're not making it up and outright lying, that is). The human species seem to have some universal moral codes, but the only thing that seems more universal is the willingness for societies to abandon them at various times.

I'm sure books upon books, having been written by smarter people, having thought about it much more seriously than I, are to be found. I'm just guessing the most obvious ones are the most egregious as well. But what else is to be expected from me? In any event, I'd suggest taking a course in ethics if you want to discuss these matters; I'm afraid I haven't much to offer. I just found the comment odd that a society could exist with no moral principles, especially given what most of the definitions I found of morality had in common; absolutism seemed to be the alternative.

4:43 PM  
Blogger bmackintosh said...

I had written Sherrod Brown to urge him to vote against these bailouts and turn the money over to the taxpayers. Average citizens would pay their debts, fix their cars, etc. and put the rest in the bank thus strengthening our economy. I was of course blown off by Sen. Brown with a form letter telling me how bad our economy has become. Apparently Sen. Brown thought that multi-millionaire bankers are much more suitable of a recipient of taxpayer money, and noble enough to spend the money for the betterment of all.

5:04 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Mosser: You've occasionally offered to have others guest blog on Kurt's Nightmare. Here's one that, of you want, you could put up front.


I was reading Frak Rich's Saturday column in the times

(Slumdogs Unite!
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/08/opinion/08rich.html)

and was struck by the following sentence. "Most ordinary Americans still don’t understand why banks got billions while nothing was done (and still isn’t being done) to bail out those who lost their homes, jobs and retirement savings."

So how do we force the powers that be to help the little people? How do we place our demands front and center? Here's a thought:

Let's organize a grass roots Home-Owner's Bonus movement. The idea is to get millions of homeowners who have mortgages to organize across the country and whithold payment on their mortgage for one month, say, logically, next December. (We could also extend it to, for example, student loan payments and other such obligations).

If 50 homeowners do it, they'll get sued by the banks and incur penalties, etc. But if five million do it, then it becomes a movement, and there's nothing the banks can do about it, particularly if (when) the story gets national press coverage. The banks would not dare complain about low and middle income families saving $1000 or $1500 for their Christmas bonus in light of their $18 billion fiasco. Columnists and pundits (like Frank Rich) would come to our defense, and the administration would have no choice but to back us.

The banks might turn around and recoup their losses from the TARP or stimulus package, but that's the point. It would redistribute the aid to all strata of society, not just reward the very wealthy who screwed up the economy.

We have ten months to organize this. Any thoughts?

Dr. Anonymous

2:02 PM  
Blogger Bazarov said...

Ahh, good ole conspiracy to commit something...that's as far as my legal expertise goes. Sounds like a Catch 22 to me.

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Anonymous Anonymous said...

Thank you Dr. M.

-Dr. A.

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